William Dreuth's Study of Bird Migration
in Lincoln Park, Chicago

A 16 Year Study of Bird Migration in Lincoln Park, Chicago

About the Content

The data in the tables is organized into 7 columns (as they appear in the booklet) - Species, Earliest Date of Arrival, Average Date of Arrival, Average Date Last Seen, Latest Date Seen, Number of Days Seen, and Number of Years Seen. Pay particular attention to the last 2 columns as they give a good idea of status in Dreuth's study. I've included Dreuth's status information on subspecies - Dreuth was a careful, meticulous observer and he kept detailed notes about his bird sightings, including subspecies, so I only thought it right to preserve this information. The content has been divided into 5 sections; use the navigation tabs to move between the sections.

Note: On smaller devices such as a cell phone, the tabular data may not display in its entirety and will require horizontal scrolling to view.

Legend
  • Birds that were full species in Dreuth's time, but are no longer so, have quotation marks around their common and scientific names, e.g., "Blue Goose", "Chen caerulescens"
  • Subspecies have quotation marks around the first modyfying part of their common names, e.g., "Gambel's" White-crowned Sparrow
  • Dates in parenthesis represent other dates, e.g., (Aug 21, 1936)

Part 2: Upland Sandpiper to Rough-legged Hawk

Species Earliest Date of Arrival Average Date of Arrival Average Date Last Seen Latest Date Seen Number of Days Seen Number of Years Seen
Upland Sandpiper
Bartramia longicauda
Apr 19, 1941
Aug 6, 1940
May 2
(Aug 6, 1942)
May 12
(Aug 29, 1939)
May 27, 1939
Sep 24, 1937
8
6
5
4
Whimbrel
Numenius phaeopus
May 31, 1941
Aug 6, 1940

(Aug 18, 1941)

(Sep 1, 1934)

Sep 18, 1937
1
5
1
4
Ruddy Turnstone
Arenaria interpres
May 13, 1939
Aug 2, 1934
May 15
Aug 15
May 24
Oct 1
May 28, 1937
Nov 12, 1936
29
258
8
14
Red Knot
Calidris canutus
Aug 21, 1937 (Sep 3, 1938) (Sep 10, 1934) Sep 24, 1936 7 4
Sanderling
Calidris alba
May 7, 1933
Aug 1, 1934
May 15
Aug 7
May 27
Nov 4
May 31, 1929
Nov 26, 1938
29
542
9
16
Dunlin
Calidris alpina
May 10, 1933
Sep 25, 1934
(May 14, 1937)
Oct 3
(May 22, 1938)
Oct 31
May 28, 1942
Nov 11, 1935
5
85
4
12
Purple Sandpiper
Calidris maritima
Nov 30, 1938 1 1
Baird's Sandpiper
Calidris bairdii
May 6, 1933
Aug 5, 1937
(May 11, 1940)
Aug 19

Oct 4
May 12, 1940
Nov 11, 1935
3
118
2
12
Least Sandpiper
Calidris minutilla
Apr 29, 1942
Aug 1, 1933
(May 7, 1939)
Aug 8
(May 19, 1938)
Sep 21
May 20, 1941
Oct 10, 1936
8
190
5
12
White-rumped Sandpiper
Calidris fuscicollis
Aug 15, 1936 (Sep 1, 1938) Oct 10, 1936 3 2
Buff-breasted Sandpiper
Calidris subruficollis
Aug 21, 1941 Aug 29 Sep 13 Oct 5, 1940 28 9
Pectoral Sandpiper
Calidris melanotos
Apr 1, 1938
Aug 1, 1933
(Apr 17, 1938)
Aug 8
(May 10, 1934)
Oct 17
May 19, 1938
Oct 27, 1929
8
79
3
10
Semipalmated Sandpiper
Calidris pusilla
May 6, 1940
Aug 1, 1933
May 15
Aug 4

Oct 7
June 1, 1940
Oct 22, 1936
35
247
7
14
Western Sandpiper
Calidris mauri
Aug 8, 1939 (Aug 24, 1936) (Aug 29, 1937) Sep 3, 1937 5 3
Dowitcher1
Limnodromus sp.
May 18, 1937
Aug 6, 1933

(Aug 20, 1937)
(May 19, 1937)
(Sep 1, 1932)
May 20, 1938
Sep 11, 1932
3
8
2
3
Wilson's Snipe
Gallinago delicata
Apr 5, 1939
Aug 26, 1941
Apr 16
Sep 6
May 2
Oct 20
May 14, 1931
Nov 22, 1938
27
58
11
14
American Woodcock
Scolopax minor
Mar 15, 1935 Mar 29 May 18 May 24, 1940 26 12
Spotted Sandpiper
Actitis macularius
Apr 18, 1934 May 2 Sep 18 Oct 1, 1933 605 16
Solitary Sandpiper
Tringa solitaria
Apr 20, 1939
Aug 5, 1937
Apr 30
Aug 17
May 15
Sep 18
May 23, 1939
Oct 12, 1939
37
42
14
12
Lesser Yellowlegs
Tringa flavipes
Apr 13, 1941
Aug 1, 1933
Apr 28
Aug 9
May 6
Sep 3
May 24, 1941
Oct 22, 1936
11
27
6
10
Willet
Tringa semipalmata
Apr 28, 1942
Aug 1, 1936
(Apr 30, 1933)
(Aug 3, 1939)
(May 12, 1939)
May 29, 1943
Aug 23, 1938
7
6
4
3
Greater Yellowlegs
Tringa melanoleuca
Mar 31, 1943
Aug 2, 1934
Apr 14
Aug 22
May 11
Oct 18
May 21, 1941
Nov 5, 1940
12
17
5
9
Red-necked Phalarope
Phalaropus lobatus
Sep 25, 1932 Oct 2, 1932 2 1
Jaeger2
Stercorarius sp.
Oct 17, 1937 (Oct 24, 1938) Nov 15, 1938 3 2
Sabine's Gull
Xema sabini
Sep 9, 1937 Oct 15, 1933 2 2
Bonaparte's Gull
Chroicocephalus philadelphia
Mar 20, 1934
Aug 1, 1934
Mar 31
Aug 2
May 26
Dec 11
May 31, 1938
Dec 29, 1939
(Jan 4, 1932)
575
1002
16
16
Little Gull
Hydrocoloeus minutus
Apr 29, 1938
Aug 18, 1939
(May 9, 1943)
Aug 25
(May 12, 1942)
Oct 17
May 28, 1942
Dec 11, 1938
10
21
3
6
Laughing Gull
Leucophaeus atricilla
Aug 23, 1943 (Aug 30, 1935) (Sep 8, 1935) Sep 29, 1936 6 3
Franklin's Gull
Leucophaeus pipixcan
Aug 6, 1942 Aug 16 Nov 2 Nov 23, 1940 135 12
Ring-billed Gull
Larus delawarensis
Feb 14, 1938
Aug 4, 1943
Mar 16
Aug 30
Apr 23
Nov 30
Jun 1, 1940
Dec 29, 1930
(Jan 7, 1940)
139
433
13
16
Herring Gull
Larus argentatus
Present all year 1608 16
Iceland Gull3
Larus glaucoides
Mar 26, 1941 2 2
"Thayer's" Iceland Gull
Larus g. thayeri
Mar 20, 1939 1 1
Glaucous Gull
Larus hyperboreus
Apr 10, 1943 Apr 22, 1928 2 2
Great Black-backed Gull
Larus marinus
Sep 6, 1938 1 1
Caspian Tern
Hydroprogne caspia
Apr 18, 1941
Aug 20, 1936
(May 4, 1943)
Aug 31
(May 16, 1940)
Oct 4
May 19, 1939
Oct 14, 1939
5
43
4
11
Black Tern
Chlidonias niger
Apr 26, 1939
Aug 1, 1933
May 7
Aug 2
May 22
Sep 19
May 31, 1940
Oct 18, 1928
108
368
13
16
Common Tern
Sterna hirundo
Apr 22, 1941
Aug 1, 1936
Apr 29
Aug 4
May 25
Oct 20
May 30, 1938
Nov 15, 1938
271
206
16
13
Forster's Tern
Sterna forsteri
Apr 26, 1940
Aug 5, 1939
(Apr 27, 1939)
Aug 15
(May 7, 1938)
Oct 20
May 10, 1943
Oct 27, 1939
8
22
4
9
Red-throated Loon
Gavia stellata
Mar 21, 1939 (Apr 15, 1928) (May 13, 1941) May 20, 1931 6 4
Common Loon
Gavia immer
Mar 31, 1939
Oct 26, 1940
Apr 12
Nov 6
May 10
Nov 26
May 15, 1941
Dec 12, 1938
48
29
13
6
Double-crested Cormorant
Phalacrocorax auritus
Apr 10, 1943
Sep 11, 1941
Apr 23
Oct 11
May 1
Nov 12
May 24, 1938
Nov 27, 1938
14
19
5
11
American Bittern
Botaurus lentiginosus
Apr 11, 1938
Aug 15, 1936
Apr 29
Sep 8
May 15
Oct 25
Jun 2, 1940
Nov 5, 1940
35
32
13
13
Least Bittern
Ixobrychus exilis
May 1, 1937
Aug 17, 1939
May 14 May 17 May 22, 1934
Aug 22, 1939
5
3
4
1
Great Blue Heron
Ardea herodias
Mar 30, 1941
Aug 1, 1933
Apr 10
Aug 7
May 18
Oct 18
May 29, 1938
Nov 14, 1935
21
48
8
12
Great Egret
Ardea alba
May 6, 1943
Aug 9, 1941

Aug 15, 1943
1
2
1
2
Green Heron
Butorides virescens
April 13, 1941
Aug 1, 1940
Apr 28
Aug 5
May 24
Sep 21
May 31, 1940
Oct 9, 1936
140
204
15
14
Black-crowned Night-Heron
Nycticorax nycticorax
Mar 5, 1935
Aug 2, 1936
(Jan 11, 1935)
Apr 17
Sep 13
May 24
Sep 17
May 31, 1937
Oct 23, 1939
21
13
9
9
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron
Nyctanassa violacea
May 6, 1943 1 1
Northern Harrier
Circus hudsonius
Mar 3, 1939
Aug 14, 1938
Apr 7
Oct 21
Apr 30
Nov 7
May 12, 1940
Nov 27, 1941
22
15
7
6
Sharp-shinned Hawk
Accipiter striatus
Apr 1, 1938
Sep 5, 1933
Apr 12
Sep 11
May 19
Oct 18
May 25, 1943
Nov 2, 1942
20
23
9
8
Cooper's Hawk
Accipiter cooperii
May 6, 1943
Sep 13, 1938
1
1
1
1
Red-shouldered Hawk
Buteo lineatus
Apr 4, 1940 May 13, 1940 2 1
Rough-legged Hawk
Buteo lagopus
May 2, 1940
Nov 22, 1930
1
1
1
1
Species Earliest Date of Arrival Average Date of Arrival Average Date Last Seen Latest Date Seen Number of Days Seen Number of Years Seen

Footnotes

1Only one species of dowitcher was recognized in Dreuth's time, Limnodromus griseus. Dowitcher was split into 2 species in 1950, Short-billed and Long-billed. Based on the dates and location, he most likely saw Short-billed Dowitcher.

2Dreuth never identified any jaeger to species.

3Almost certainly "Kumlien's" Iceland Gull. This and "Thayer's" Iceland Gull are now considered subspecies of Iceland Gull.

William Dreuth's Study of Bird Migration